Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is histologically characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles throughout the brain.
The major constituents of amyloid plaques are the β-amyloid peptides consisting of 40 and 42 amino acids, which are derived from the amyloid precursor protein.
Neurofibrillary tangles are made up of paired helical filaments consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (phospho-tau). Tau protein, present in the brain in 6 different isoforms, is an intracellular protein that is released upon neuronal death.
The INNOTEST® assays from Fujirebio are solid-phase enzyme immunoassays for the quantitative determination of β-amyloid(1-42), β-amyloid(1-40), total tau, and phospho-tau(181P) in human cerebrospinal fluid. The combined use of these markers allows identification of AD pathology ante-mortem.
These markers can be used in clinical routine to discriminate AD from normal aging1, other neurological diseases and other types of dementia (non-AD). Interpretation of the results, however, should always be done in combination with other clinical information.